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What is Botox?

Botox® is a brandname for botulinum toxin. It is a neurotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It blocks nerve signals to the muscle, preventing the muscle from contracting.

After injection with botulinum toxin it takes a few days for the muscle to relax. The skin above the muscle relaxes and lines smoothes which makes the cosmetic effect to become apparent. The effect lasts 3 to 6 months.

Numbers & Facts

Which facial muscles were treated before making the research movie? The red dots indicate the injectionpoints*.

*In a regular treatment with botulinum toxin, less muscles are treated.


Facial expressions

In order to make facial expressions, you will need muscles to contract in the face. By contracting and working together in different configurations, they can produce a enormous amount of different facial expressions. 

The face is the first that we encounter when we meet one another. People are naturally very focused on faces because a face tells a lot about someone's emotions, intentions and judgements. 

Everybody has a very personal style of facial expression. Using too much botulinum toxin could take away a bit of this individuality.

Facial feedback mechanism

There is a relationship between our facial expressions and our emotions. Our facial muscles give our brain feedback on what the face expresses. It has been shown by scientific research that smiling does make you feel more happy. The same accounts for frowning. When you frown a lot -maybe unconsciously- you tell your brain that you're in a negative mood. 

Mirror neurons

Mirror neurons in our brain enable us to mimic facial behaviour from the other person that we are interacting with. This mechanism enables us to understand the other better.


You can feel your mirrorneurons working when you watch the video of the facial expressions. Notice how your face unconsciously mimics the facial expressions displayed in the video.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence with which machines, software and devices independently solve problems. They thereby imitate the mind of man.

Facial emotion reading software is a form of AI.